The DSM-IVR defines personality disorder as “an enduring pattern of behaviors and lived experience that deviates markedly from what is expected in the individual’s culture, that is pervasive and rigid, that appears adolescence or early adulthood, which is stable over time and is a source of psychological suffering or impaired social functioning”.

There are three major groups: Group A with people who come across as odd and eccentric, Group B with people who often come across as dramatic, emotional, or unpredictable (Borderline Personality figures within this), and finally group C with people who appear anxious and fearful.

Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is characterized by:

emotional dysregulation (increased sensitivity, dichotomous “white or black” vision, mood swings, intense emotional reactions, depression and anxiety, difficulty (too much or not enough) managing anger),
impulsive and self-destructive acts such as addictions (massive alcoholism, drugs, video games, sex, emotional dependence), eating disorders (anorexia and/or bulimia) but also acts of self-harm and suicidal thoughts or acts .
great instability in interpersonal relationships. Emotional relationships (particularly family and sentimental) are generally experienced as intense, conflictual, chaotic and unstable. The more the borderline person becomes attached, the more the relationship with the other becomes difficult to manage. In the intimate relationship, the person is in search of greed and fusion but while having very strong fears (fear of getting lost in the fusion or of being abandoned)… She finds herself in both desire and fear… demand and restraint… The relationship is generally destructive and often endangered for both protagonists. In order to avoid the rupture (real or imagined), the borderline person will then make every effort to avoid it.
identity disruption. It is a problem relating to the sense of self and the notion of self. The person with BPD has a very fragile and unstable self-image. This image is dependent on the context, the quality of the relationships and the environment. At any time, the image that the person has of himself can change (positively or negatively and reinforced according to the mood). Most BPD people are described as chameleons, they find it difficult to contain their feelings, opinions and decisions in front of others. They very often relate to a feeling of emptiness, difference and deep boredom, which very often leads them to “normalize” and continually adapt to others. Certain cognitive disorders can also arise in the event of very intense stress such as depersonalization, dissociation or even delirium.

Generally these symptoms are of short duration and do not exceed a few days.


BPD can manifest itself in different ways, with more or less variable degrees depending on the individual and the periods.

Funder, D.C., 2001.The personality puzzle.Norton, New York